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Ed Cesnalis

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About Ed Cesnalis

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    Sierra Nevada Photographer
  • Birthday 04/09/1953

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    Mammoth Lakes - California
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  1. Oyster Farming at the mouth of the Umpqua
  2. Yes, unless the VFR pilot is exercising only sport pilot privileges.
  3. VFR on top is an IFR clearance but not what we are talking about here. Both are true, VFR pilot isn't allowed to fly an IFR 'VFR on top' clearance. VFR pilot can fly VFR over the top.
  4. Riparian habitat - North Fork Siuslaw River
  5. I just upgraded mine. $350 is the base fee no matter what is wrong. $150 fee for using an existing rebuild instead of getting your old one back. $150 was another charge I paid for a backup battery. All in all good value and good support.
  6. This thread is about a pitch attitude approach that is extremely simple and safe. Numbers don't really apply. Sub-optimal approach speeds make it impossible without adding power as you can't achieve the landing attitude and instead do something close to the three point landing. The primary reason for presenting this pitch attitude approach is to show how to easily finish/contact in a landing attitude (Vy climb attitude). It also takes away any need for complexity ( 1 speed maintained by trim and 1 config from abeam to ground effect ). Finally it uses optimal approach speed not based on any instrument.
  7. Turn off the master switch for a moment to operate on batt only.
  8. Andy, to put your thinking in the context of this thread and pitch attitude landing I would say it like this. Ground effect when fast requires more patience and feel when transitioning from approach to level in order to avoid ballooning. Afterwards hopefully the nose is then raised to the landing attitude before contact.
  9. The classic thinking is: compare that aft movement to a ratchet. Always back never forward / release. Pause it to avoid balloon but always back.
  10. That's a great video. I'm sure you noticed that the transition continued forward till you had nose and one main in contact. To put in context of this thread you were a long way from reaching a Vy climb attitude before contact.
  11. CT landings are quite easy to do. Landing and rolling out on the mains will be the objective here as it avoids the more vulnerable 3 point roll out while still at speed. We use 3 different pitch attitudes. In order to achieve the target pitch attitude it's helpful to know how recognize it. Lets call the three level, approach and landing. You already know and use these pitch attitudes for other purposes like departure and cruise. Level - this is where we set our EFIS to level for cruise. You already know this sight picture. Approach In a CTSW this attitude is drooped wing tip level. In your more stretched design its the attitude you use to descend to the runway. This is best with landing flaps and a closed throttle at a speed under 60kts. Landing - this is your Vy climb attitude. You already know it from departures. Practice the transition from level to landing attitudes at cruise with a cruise throttle setting. You can learn and fine tune this in 10 minutes. Try using one speed change and fly the whole approach at that speed relying on trim not stick pressure to maintain it. 55kts is a great go to number for me here. Getting this number right results in an easy transition from approach to level without ballooning. No more numbers, this is a pitch attitude approach to landing a Flight Design CT series aircraft. Lets begin reviewing this technique on final in our nose low approach attitude. Transition from approach attitude to level attitude. Initiate this when under a wingspan from the ground. Target 3' and level, higher is okay. Use feel to avoid ballooning while avoiding nose wheel contact. Small balloon is not a go-around, just release some back pressure and continue. Transition from level attitude to landing attitude. Contact happens best as soon as you achieve landing attitude. This simple technique works for me 98% of the time As long as I can approach all the way to under 1 wing span it works. From this landing/Vy attitude I easily get full stall landings with my stick at the aft stop. I land balanced on my mains. I do not have my nose wheel contacting less than 1 second after my mains. Advanced landings Advanced landings happen when I cannot descend in my approach attitude below a wing span. When there is negative wind sheer present at landing, as the wind snaps past that 90 degree point we realize rapid sink. In this case I can't be level at 3' instead I'm level at 8' or even higher. The technique is the same just higher up. My landing attitude from here will very likely result in rapid sink. Using throttle to soften might only eat up runway and not get you down that last 8' or more. From a landing attitude and closed throttle (keep right hand on throttle) I have to land soft at the bottom of the rapid sink. I still have a neutral stick and its my cushion at the bottom to the extent its needed. Night landings This variation is a blend of the two above. Achieve landing attitude a little early/high and control sink with throttle if needed. Use this for darkness or any condition where you cannot perceive your height above the ground precisely.
  12. My interpretation is that is speaking to prop pitch. Vx and Vy departures are done WOT so the variable is prop pitch not throttle position.
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